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The linker supports a plethora of command-line options, but in actual practice few of them are used in any particular context. For instance, a frequent use of ld is to link standard Unix object files on a standard, supported Unix system. On such a system, to link a file hello. Some of the command-line options to ld may be specified at any point in the command line.
Repeating non-file options with a different argument will either have no further effect, or override prior occurrences those further to the left on the command line of that option. Options which may be meaningfully specified more than once are noted in the descriptions below. Non-option arguments are object files or archives which are to be linked together. They may follow, precede, or be mixed in with command-line options, except that an object file argument may not be placed between an option and its argument.
If the linker cannot recognize the format of an object file, it will assume that it is a linker script. This feature permits the linker to link against a file which appears to be an object or an archive, but actually merely defines some symbol values, or uses INPUT or GROUP to load other objects.
For options whose names are a single letter, option arguments must either follow the option letter without intervening whitespace, or be given as separate arguments immediately following the option that requires them. Note—there is one exception to this rule. Arguments to multiple-letter options must either be separated from the option name by an equals sign, or be given as separate arguments immediately following the option that requires them. Unique abbreviations of the names of multiple-letter options are accepted.
Note—if the linker is being invoked indirectly, via a compiler driver e. This is important, because otherwise the compiler driver program may silently drop the linker options, resulting in a bad link. Confusion may also arise when passing options that require values through a driver, as the use of a space between option and argument acts as a separator, and causes the driver to pass only the option to the linker and the argument to the compiler.
In this case, it is simplest to use the joined forms of both single- and multiple-letter options, such as:. Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the original file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not removed. Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes.
Any character including a backslash may be included by prefixing the character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional file options; any such options will be processed recursively.
This option may be used any number of times. This option is only meaningful on ELF platforms supporting the rtld-audit interface. In the current release of ld , this option is useful only for the Intel family of architectures. In that ld configuration, the architecture argument identifies the particular architecture in the family, enabling some safeguards and modifying the archive-library search path. See ld and the Intel family , for details. Future releases of ld may support similar functionality for other architecture families.
You may want to use this option if you are linking files with an unusual binary format. These three options are equivalent; multiple forms are supported for compatibility with other linkers. The -P option is provided for Solaris compatibility. Use entry as the explicit symbol for beginning execution of your program, rather than the default entry point. See Entry Point , for a discussion of defaults and other ways of specifying the entry point.
Specifies a list of archive libraries from which symbols should not be automatically exported. The library names may be delimited by commas or colons. Specifying --exclude-libs ALL excludes symbols in all archive libraries from automatic export.
This option is available only for the i PE targeted port of the linker and for ELF targeted ports. For i PE, symbols explicitly listed in a. For ELF targeted ports, symbols affected by this option will be treated as hidden. Specifies a list of object files or archive members, from which symbols should not be automatically exported, but which should be copied wholesale into the import library being generated during the link.
This option is available only for the i PE targeted port of the linker. Symbols explicitly listed in a. When creating a dynamically linked executable, using the -E option or the --export-dynamic option causes the linker to add all symbols to the dynamic symbol table. The dynamic symbol table is the set of symbols which are visible from dynamic objects at run time. If you do not use either of these options or use the --no-export-dynamic option to restore the default behavior , the dynamic symbol table will normally contain only those symbols which are referenced by some dynamic object mentioned in the link.
If you use dlopen to load a dynamic object which needs to refer back to the symbols defined by the program, rather than some other dynamic object, then you will probably need to use this option when linking the program itself. You can also use the dynamic list to control what symbols should be added to the dynamic symbol table if the output format supports it. Note that this option is specific to ELF targeted ports. This tells the dynamic linker that the symbol table of the shared object should be used as an auxiliary filter on the symbol table of the shared object name.
If the dynamic linker resolves any symbols from the filter object, it will first check whether there is a definition in the shared object name. If there is one, it will be used instead of the definition in the filter object. The shared object name need not exist. Thus the shared object name may be used to provide an alternative implementation of certain functions, perhaps for debugging or for machine specific performance. This option may be specified more than once. This tells the dynamic linker that the symbol table of the shared object which is being created should be used as a filter on the symbol table of the shared object name.
The dynamic linker will resolve symbols according to the symbol table of the filter object as usual, but it will actually link to the definitions found in the shared object name. Thus the filter object can be used to select a subset of the symbols provided by the object name. Some older linkers used the -F option throughout a compilation toolchain for specifying object-file format for both input and output object files.
The GNU linker uses other mechanisms for this purpose: Set the maximum size of objects to be optimized using the GP register to size. This is ignored for other object file formats. Add the archive or object file specified by namespec to the list of files to link. If namespec is of the form: On systems which support shared libraries, ld may also search for files other than lib namespec.
Note that this behavior does not apply to: The linker will search an archive only once, at the location where it is specified on the command line. If the archive defines a symbol which was undefined in some object which appeared before the archive on the command line, the linker will include the appropriate file s from the archive. However, an undefined symbol in an object appearing later on the command line will not cause the linker to search the archive again.
This type of archive searching is standard for Unix linkers. Add path searchdir to the list of paths that ld will search for archive libraries and ld control scripts. You may use this option any number of times. The directories are searched in the order in which they are specified on the command line.
Directories specified on the command line are searched before the default directories. All -L options apply to all -l options, regardless of the order in which the options appear. Directories specified this way are searched at the point in which the linker script appears in the command line.
Emulate the emulation linker. Print a link map to the standard output. A link map provides information about the link, including the following:. Note - symbols whose values are computed by an expression which involves a reference to a previous value of the same symbol may not have correct result displayed in the link map.
This is because the linker discards intermediate results and only retains the final value of an expression. Under such circumstances the linker will display the final value enclosed by square brackets. Thus for example a linker script containing:. See Expressions for more information about expressions in linker scripts. Turn off page alignment of sections, and disable linking against shared libraries. Set the text and data sections to be readable and writable. Also, do not page-align the data segment, and disable linking against shared libraries.
Although a writable text section is allowed for PE-COFF targets, it does not conform to the format specification published by Microsoft. This option negates most of the effects of the -N option. It sets the text section to be read-only, and forces the data segment to be page-aligned. Note - this option does not enable linking against shared libraries. Use -Bdynamic for this.
Use output as the name for the program produced by ld ; if this option is not specified, the name a. If level is a numeric values greater than zero ld optimizes the output. This might take significantly longer and therefore probably should only be enabled for the final binary.
At the moment this option only affects ELF shared library generation. Future releases of the linker may make more use of this option.