Optimizing Server Settings for Improved MySQL Performance

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Replication is asynchronous by default; slaves do not need to be connected permanently to receive updates from the master. Depending on the configuration, you can replicate all databases, selected databases, or even selected tables within a database.

Scale-out solutions - spreading the load among multiple slaves to improve performance. In this environment, all writes and updates must take place on the master server. Reads, however, may take place on one or more slaves.

This model can improve the performance of writes since the master is dedicated to updateswhile binlog_cache_size performance increasing read speed across an increasing number of slaves. Data security - because data is replicated to the slave, and the slave can pause the replication process, it is possible to run backup services on the slave without corrupting the corresponding master data.

Analytics - live data can be created on the master, while the analysis of the information can take place on the slave without affecting the performance of the master.

Long-distance data distribution - you can use replication to create a local copy of data for a remote site binlog_cache_size performance use, without permanent access to the master. The traditional method is based on replicating events from the master's binary log, and requires the log files and positions in them to be synchronized between master and slave.

The newer method based on global transaction identifiers GTIDs is transactional and therefore binlog_cache_size performance not require working with log files or positions within these files, which greatly simplifies many common replication tasks.

Replication using GTIDs guarantees consistency between master and slave as long as all transactions committed on the master have also been applied on the slave. Replication in MySQL supports different types of synchronization.

The original type of synchronization is one-way, asynchronous replication, in which one server acts as the master, while one binlog_cache_size performance more other servers act as slaves. There are a number of solutions available for setting up replication between servers, and the best method to use depends on the presence of data and the engine types you are using.

Replication is controlled through a number of different options and variables. Binlog_cache_size performance can use binlog_cache_size performance to solve a binlog_cache_size performance of different problems, including performance, supporting the backup of different databases, and as part of a larger solution to alleviate system failures.

This section describes how to configure the different types of replication available in MySQL and binlog_cache_size performance the setup and configuration required for a replication environment, including step-by-step instructions for creating a new replication environment. The major components binlog_cache_size performance this section are:. Events in the binary log are recorded using a number of formats. Once started, the replication process should require little administration or monitoring.

The information in the binlog_cache_size performance log is stored in different logging formats according to the database changes being recorded. Slaves are configured to read the binary log from the master and to execute the events in the binary log on the slave's local database.

Each slave receives a copy of the entire contents of the binary log. It is the responsibility of the slave to decide which statements in the binlog_cache_size performance log should be executed. Unless you specify otherwise, all events in the master binary log are executed on the slave. If required, you can configure the slave to process only events that apply to particular databases or tables. Each slave keeps a record of the binary log coordinates: This means that multiple slaves can be connected binlog_cache_size performance the master and executing different parts of the same binary log.

Because the slaves control this process, individual slaves binlog_cache_size performance be connected and disconnected from the server without affecting the master's operation. Also, because each slave records the current position within the binary log, it is possible for slaves to be disconnected, reconnect and then resume processing.

The master and each slave must be configured with binlog_cache_size performance unique ID using the server-id option. In binlog_cache_size performance, each slave must be configured with information about the master host name, log file name, and position within that file. This section describes how to set up a MySQL server to use binary log file position based binlog_cache_size performance. There are a number of different methods for setting up replication, and the exact method to use depends on how you are setting up replication, and whether you already have data within your master binlog_cache_size performance.

On the master, you must binlog_cache_size performance binary logging and configure a unique server ID. This might require a binlog_cache_size performance restart.

On each slave that you want to connect to the master, you must configure a unique server ID. Optionally, create a separate user for your slaves to use during authentication with the master when reading the binary log for replication.

Before creating a data snapshot or starting the replication process, on the master you binlog_cache_size performance record the current position in the binary log. You need this information when configuring the binlog_cache_size performance so that the slave knows where within the binary log to start executing events.

If you already have data on the master and want to use it to synchronize the slave, you need to create a data snapshot to copy the data to the slave. The storage engine you are using has an impact on how you binlog_cache_size performance the snapshot. When you are using Binlog_cache_size performanceyou must stop processing statements on the master to obtain a read-lock, then obtain its current binary binlog_cache_size performance coordinates and dump its data, before permitting the master to continue executing statements.

If you do not stop the execution of statements, the data dump and the master status information will not match, resulting in binlog_cache_size performance or corrupted databases on the slaves.

If you are using InnoDByou do not need a read-lock and a binlog_cache_size performance that is long enough to transfer the data snapshot is sufficient.

Configure the slave with settings for connecting to the master, such as the host name, login credentials, and binary log file name and binlog_cache_size performance. If you do not have this privilege, it might not be possible to enable replication. To configure a master to use binary log file position based replication, you must enable binary logging and establish a unique server ID.

If this has not already been done, a server restart is required. Binary logging binlog_cache_size performance be enabled on the master because the binary log is the basis for replicating changes from the master to its slaves.

If binary logging is not enabled on the master using the log-bin option, replication is not possible. Each server within a replication group must be configured with a unique server ID. How you organize and select the numbers is your choice. Within the [mysqld] binlog_cache_size performance of the configuration file, add the log-bin and server-id options. If these options already exist, but are commented out, uncomment the options and alter them according to your needs. For example, to enable binary logging using a log file name prefix of mysql-binand configure a server ID of 1, use these lines:.

Ensure that the skip-networking option is not enabled on your binlog_cache_size performance master. If networking has been disabled, the slave cannot communicate with the binlog_cache_size performance and replication fails. Each slave connects to the master using a MySQL user name and password, so there must be a user binlog_cache_size performance on the master that the slave can use to connect.

You can choose to create a different account for each binlog_cache_size performance, or connect to the master using the same account for each slave. Therefore, you may want to create a separate account that has privileges only for the replication process, to minimize the possibility of compromise to other accounts. For example, to set up a new user, replthat can binlog_cache_size performance for replication from any host within the mydomain.

To configure the slave binlog_cache_size performance start the replication process at the correct point, you need the master's current coordinates within its binary log. In that case, the values that you need to binlog_cache_size performance later when specifying the slave's log file and position are the empty string '' and 4. If the master has been binary logging previously, use this procedure to obtain the master binary log coordinates:.

If you exit the client, the lock is released. The File binlog_cache_size performance shows the name of the log file and the Position column shows the position within the file. In this example, the binary log file is mysql-bin. You need them later when you are setting binlog_cache_size performance the slave.

Binlog_cache_size performance represent the binlog_cache_size performance coordinates at which the slave should begin processing new updates from the master. You now have the information you need to enable the slave to start reading from the binary log in the correct place to start replication.

The next binlog_cache_size performance depends on whether you have existing data on the master. Choose one of the following options:. If you have existing data that needs be to synchronized with the slave before you start replication, leave the client running so that the binlog_cache_size performance remains in place.

This prevents any further changes being made, so that the data copied to the slave is in synchrony with the master.

If you are setting up a new master and slave replication group, you can exit the first session to release the read lock. If the master database contains existing data it is necessary to copy this data to each slave.

Binlog_cache_size performance are different ways to dump the data from the master database. The following sections describe possible options. To select the appropriate method of dumping the database, choose between these options:. Use the mysqldump tool to create a dump of all the databases you want binlog_cache_size performance replicate. This is the recommended method, especially when using InnoDB. If your database is stored in binary portable files, you can copy the binlog_cache_size performance data files to a slave.

This can be more efficient than using mysqldump and importing the file on each slave, because it skips the overhead of updating indexes as the INSERT statements binlog_cache_size performance replayed.

With storage engines binlog_cache_size performance as InnoDB this is not recommended. To create a snapshot of the data in an existing master database, use the mysqldump tool. Once the data dump has been completed, import this data into the slave before starting the replication process. The following example dumps all databases to a binlog_cache_size performance named dbdump. If you do not use --master-datathen it is necessary to lock all tables in a separate session manually.

It is possible to exclude certain databases from the dump using the mysqldump tool. Binlog_cache_size performance you want to choose which databases to include in the dump, do not use --all-databases. Choose one of these options:.

Exclude all the tables in the database using --ignore-table option. Name only those databases which you binlog_cache_size performance dumped using the --databases option. To import the data, either copy the dump file to the slave, or access the file from the binlog_cache_size performance when connecting remotely binlog_cache_size performance the slave. This section describes how binlog_cache_size performance create a data snapshot using the raw files which make up the database.

How the storage engine responds to this depends on its crash recovery abilities. This command records the log name and offset corresponding to the snapshot to be used on the slave.

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For a database configuration tuning only please look first at our MySQL database health check. Some recommendations are dangerous! Dangerous means you can loose or get inconsistent data in certain cases. Only use them if you know what you are doing!!! And see also Relative Impact on Performance p. Enable the slow query log with a long query time of for example 10 and then restart the server. Then wait for a appropriate period of time which represents your typical business for example 1 day, or 1 week or 1 month.

Check if everything works fine by provoking a slow query for example cartesian product: Decrease long query time to for example 5, then 3, then 2 and then 1 second. Have you now some queries in it? Treat the slow query log with the following command: Pick the first query look for its original in the slow. If you have too many Slaves more than 20 - 40 Slaves per Master this could be the issue.

Try to use cascaded replication. Check if you have problems with the network between your Slave and your Master ifconfig, ping, etc. If you transfer too much data this could also be the issue. Can you afford to wait for hours when transaction must be rolled back or database crashes during data load? Try using a bit architecture. About us Services Tools Resources Download. Acknowledgement Thanks to the following people for hints: Jens Bollmann Efficiency of Performance Tuning measurements Before you start tuning you should think about the following graph: Start last updated Do you have performance problems?

Do not tune your system it only can get worse! Have you ever tuned your system? You have already started to tune your system Chose the area you want to tune the following order is recommended: You have not yet tuned your system You can choose now between 3 tuning paths: You choose the more systematical path go through ff.

You choose the more profitable path. Have you enabled the slow query log? You did not yet enable the slow query log Enable the slow query log with a long query time of for example 10 and then restart the server. You have enabled the slow query log Did you get any slow queries? You have enabled the slow query log but no queries in it Check if everything works fine by provoking a slow query for example cartesian product: Slow query log works fine but now queries in it Decrease long query time to for example 5, then 3, then 2 and then 1 second.

Slow query log works fine but now queries running longer than 1 second in it Is the system performance acceptable for you now? You got a huge amount of queries in the slow query log Treat the slow query log with the following command: Your system is read heavy Enable query cache.

Disable query cache again. Your system is not read heavy Do you use InnoDB tables only? Do you use InnoDB tables? Do you use other storage engine tables? You use other storage engines tables There are some much faster solutions around! Architecture tuning The following items can help: Indexing Do you have fully redundant indices? Use BIT for status Table design tuning Remove not needed attributes. You probably do not have a Replication Performance problem. Please contact us to get more help.

Too many Slaves If you have too many Slaves more than 20 - 40 Slaves per Master this could be the issue. Problems with the Network Check if you have problems with the network between your Slave and your Master ifconfig, ping, etc.

Problems found and solved and lagging disappeared? Too much data If you transfer too much data this could also be the issue. We have to investigate more in detail. It comes because of severl reasons: Is the query really needed like this? Do you really need a sorting? Is your MySQL server already running a reasonable amount of time uptime, 1 period of usual business for example 1 day or 1 week? What storage engine are you using? You are using mixed storage engines, general parameters Slow query log enabled?

Check for slow queries. Do you have slow queries? Have you binary logging enabled? Do you need binary logging? Are you using the MySQL query cache? Updating PK's is expensive. Try to avoid this. Data load tuning Do you have performance problems with your data load? Data load InnoDB variable tuning Can you manually roll back or restart your data load when system crashes during data load? This can take hours.

Make smaller pieces of your transaction. Delete rows from table during data load Do you have to delete all rows from a table? Because utf8 uses more space 3 bytes for indices and CHAR attributes you should only define your columns with utf8 when you really need it!

InnoDB double write tuning Can you risk to get corrupted data after system crash? Larger log files means longer recovery time! A good point to start is: This parameter is very system and OS dependent you have to play around with it and benchmark your system! InnoDB max dirty pages tuning Do you have several little peaks a day you want to break? InnoDB flush log tuning Do you have have battery cache disk buffers? InnoDB flush log tuning Can you afford to lose up to 1 second of your data?

InnoDB checksum tuning Can you risk to be not aware of physical data corruption? Separate your InnoDB tablespace files from your InnoDB log files on different physical disks if you do not have "stripe everything everywhere" disk architecture.

InnoDB tablespace tuning Do you have per-file tablespaces? Try to use raw devices. This should only be done as last resort. Some file systems do not perform optimal. Use recent file systems. Use NPTL thread library. File System tuning Hardware Tuning Are you using hyper threading on your system?

You are using hyper threading Disable hyper threading. Disabling hyper threading did not help Are you using bit Architecture? You are using bit Architecture bit architectures sometimes performs better. Application tuning Do you have data loads which are to slow? Application tuning other problems Not yet implemented.

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